StatPac for Windows User's Guide
StatPac Home
 

Overview

System Requirements and Installation

System Requirements

Installation

Unregistering & Removing the Software from a PC

Network Operation

Updating to a More Recent Version

Backing-Up a Study

Processing Time

Server Demands and Security

Technical Support

Notice of Liability

Paper & Pencil and CATI Survey Process

Internet Survey Process

Basic File Types

Codebooks (.cod)

Data Manager Forms (.frm)

Data Files (.dat)

Internet Response Files (.asc or .txt)

Email Address Lists (.lst or .txt)

Email Logs (.log)

Rich Text Files (.rtf)

HTML Files (.htm)

Perl Script (.pl)

Password Files (.text)

Exported Data Files (.txt and .csv and .mdb)

Email Body Files (.txt or .htm)

Sample File Naming Scheme for a Survey

Customizing the Package

Problem Recognition and Definition

Creating the Research Design

Methods of Research

Sampling

Data Collection

Reporting the Results

Validity

Reliability

Systematic and Random Error

Formulating Hypotheses from Research Questions

Type I and Type II Errors

Types of Data

Significance

One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests

Procedure for Significance Testing

Bonferroni's Theorem

Central Tendency

Variability

Standard Error of the Mean

Inferences with Small Sample Sizes

Degrees of Freedom

Components of a Study Design

Elements of a Variable

Variable Format

Variable Name

Variable Label

Value Labels

Valid Codes

Skip Codes for Branching

Data Entry Control Parameters

Missing OK

Auto Advance

Caps Only

Codebook Tools

The Grid

Codebook Libraries

Duplicating Variables

Insert & Delete Variables

Move Variables

Starting Columns

Print a Codebook

Variable Detail Window

Codebook Creation Process

Method 1 - Create a Codebook from Scratch

Method 2 – Create a Codebook from a Word-Processed Document

Spell Check a Codebook

Multiple Response Variables

Missing Data

Changing Information in a Codebook

Overview

Data Input Fields

Form Naming Conventions

Form Creation Process

Using the Codebook to Create a Form

Using a Word-Processed Document to Create a Form

Variable Text Formatting

Field Placement

Value Labels

Variable Separation

Variable Label Indent

Value Labels Indent

Space between Columns

Valid Codes

Skip Codes

Variable Numbers

Variable List and Detail Windows

Data Input Settings

Select a Specific Variable

Finding Text in the Form

Replacing Text in the Form

Saving the Codebook or Workspace

Overview

Keyboard And Mouse Functions

Create A New Data File

Edit Or Add To An Existing Data File

Select A Different Data File

Change Fields

Change Records

Enter A New Data Record

View Data For A Specified Record Number

Find Records That Contain Specified Data

Duplicate A Field From The Previous Record

Delete A Record

Data Input Settings

Compact Data File

Double Entry Verification

Print A Data Record

Variable List & Detail Windows

Data File Format

Overview

HTML Email Surveys

Plain Text Email Surveys

Brackets

Item Numbering

Codebook Design for a Plain Text Email Survey

Capturing a Respondent's Email Address

Filtering Email to a Mailbox

General Considerations for Plain Text Email

Overview

Internet Survey Process

Server Setup

Create the HTML Survey Pages

Upload the Files to the Web server

Test the survey

Download and import the test data

Delete the test data from the server

Conduct the survey

Download and import the data

Display a survey closed message

Server Setup

FTP Login Information

Paths & Folder Information

Design Considerations for Internet Surveys

Special Variables for Internet Surveys

Script to Create the HTML

Command Syntax & Help

Saving and Loading Styles

Survey Generation Procedure

Script Editor

Imbedded HTML Tags

Primary Settings

HTML Name (HTMLName=)

Banner Image(s)  (BannerImage=)

Heading  (Heading=)

Finish Text & Finish URL (FinishText= and FinishURL=)

Cookie (Cookie=)

IP Control (IPControl=)

Allow Cross Site (AllowCrossSite=)

URL to Survey Folder  (WebFolderURL=)

Advanced Settings - Header & Footer

RepeatBannerImage

RepeatHeading

PageNumbers

ContinueButtonText

SubmitButtonText

ProgressBar

FootnoteText & FootnoteURL

Advanced Settings - Finish & Popups

Thanks

Closed

HelpWindowWidth & HelpWindowHeight

HelpLinkText

LinkText

PopupBannerImage

PopupFullScreen

Advanced Settings - Control

Method

Email

RestartSeconds

MaximizeWindow

BreakFrame

AutoAdvance

BranchDelay

Cache

Index

ForceLoaderSubmit

ExtraTallBlankLine

RadioTextPosition

TextBoxTextPosition

LargeTextBoxPosition

LargeTextBoxProgressBar

Advanced Settings - Fonts & Colors

Global Attributes

Heading, Title, Text, & Footnote Attributes

Instructions, Question, and Response Attributes

Advanced Settings - Passwords - Color & Banner Image

LoginBannerImage

LoginBGColor

LoginWallpaper

LoginWindowColor

Advanced Settings - Passwords - Text & Control

PasswordType

LoginText

PasswordText

LoginButtonText

FailText

FailButtonText

ShowLink

EmailMe

KeepLog

Advanced Settings - Passwords - Single vs. Multiple

Password (single password method)

PasswordFile (multiple passwords method)

PasswordField & ID Field (multiple passwords method)

PasswordControl

Advanced Settings - Passwords - Technical Notes

Advanced Settings - Server Overrides

ActionTag

StorageFolder

ScriptFolder

Perl

MailProgram

Branching and Piping

Randomization (Rotations)

Survey Creation Script - Overview

Using Commands More than Once in a Script

Survey Creation - Specify Text

Heading

Title

Text

FootnoteText

Instructions

Question

Survey Creation - Spacing and pagination

BlankLine

NewPage

Survey Creation - Images and Links

Image

Link

Survey Creation - Help Windows

Survey Creation - Popup Windows

Survey Creation - Objects

Radio Buttons for a Single Variable

Radio Buttons for Grouped Variables (matrix style)

DropDown Menu

TextBox for a Single Variable

Adding a TextBox to a Radio Button,
    CheckBox, or Radio Button Matrix

TextBoxes for Grouped Variables

Sliders for Single or Grouped Variables

CheckBox for Multiple Response Variables

ListBox

Uploading and Downloading Files from the Server

Auto Transfer

FTP

Summary of the Most Common Script Commands

Overview

Format of an Email Address File

Extract Email Addresses

List Statistics

Join Two or More Lists

Split a List

Clean, Sort, and Eliminate Duplicates

Add ID Numbers to a List

Create a List of Nonresponders

Subtract One List From Another List

Merge an Email List into a StatPac Data File

Send Email Invitations

Using an ID Number to Track Responses

Email Address File

Body Text File

Sending Email

Overview

Mouse and Keyboard Functions

Designing Analyses

Continuation Lines

Comment Lines

V Numbers

Keywords

Analyses

Variable List

Variable Detail

Find Text

Replace Text

Options

Load, Save, and Merge Procedure Files

Print a Procedure File

Run a Procedure File

Results Editor

Graphics

Table of Contents

Automatically Generate Topline Procedures

Keyword Index

Keywords Overview

Categories of Keywords

Keyword Help

Ordering Keywords

Global and Temporary Keywords

Permanently Change a Codebook and Data File

Backup a Study

STUDY Command

DATA Command

SAVE Command

WRITE Command

MERGE Command

HEADING Command

TITLE Command

FOOTNOTE Command

LABELS Command

OPTIONS Command

SELECT and REJECT Commands

NEW Command

LET Command

STACK Command

RECODE Command

COMPUTE Command

AVERAGE, COUNT and SUM Commands

IF-THEN … ELSE Command

SORT Command

WEIGHT Command

NORMALIZE Command

LAG Command

DIFFERENCE Command

DUMMY Command

RUN Command

REM Command

Reserved Words

Reserved Word RECORD

Reserved Word TOTAL

Reserved Word MEAN

Reserved Word TIME

Analyses Index

Analyses Overview

LIST Command

FREQUENCIES Command

CROSSTABS Command

BANNERS Command

DESCRIPTIVE Command

BREAKDOWN Command

TTEST Command

CORRELATE Command

Advanced Analyses Index

REGRESS Command

STEPWISE Command

LOGIT and PROBIT Commands

PCA Command

FACTOR Command

CLUSTER Command

DISCRIMINANT Command

ANOVA Command

CANONICAL Command

MAP Command

Advanced Analyses Bibliography

Utility Programs

Import and Export

StatPac and Prior Versions of StatPac Gold

Access and Excel

Comma Delimited and Tab Delimited Files

Files Containing Multiple Data Records per Case

Internet Files

Email Surveys

Merging Data Files

Concatenate Data Files

Merge Variables and Data

Aggregate

Codebook

Quick Codebook Creation

Check Codebook and Data

Sampling

Random Number Table

Random Digit Dialing Table

Select Random Records from Data File

Compare Data Files

Conversions

Date Conversions

Currency Conversion

Dichotomous Multiple Response
   Conversion

Statistics Calculator Menu

Distributions Menu

Normal distribution

T distribution

F distribution

Chi-square distribution

Counts Menu

Chi-square test

Fisher's Exact Test

Binomial Test

Poisson Distribution Events Test

Percents Menu

Choosing the Proper Test

One Sample t-Test between Percents

Two Sample t-Test between Percents

Confidence Intervals around a Percent

Means Menu

Mean and Standard Deviation of a Sample

Matched Pairs t-Test between Means

Independent Groups t-Test between Means

Confidence Interval around a Mean

Compare a Sample Mean to a Population Mean

Compare Two Standard Deviations

Compare Three or more Means

Correlation Menu

Sampling Menu

Sample Size for Percents

Sample Size for Means

Data Manager

Overview

The Data Manager is used to enter new data, edit existing data, verify data using a double entry method, and print data using a form created with the Study Design program. All of the buttons on the opening screen will be disabled until a data file has been loaded.

In order to use the Data Manager, you must have first created a data manager form. It is not possible to enter new data or edit existing data without a form.

The form provides the data entry template (i.e., what the data entry person will see on the screen). The Data Manager will attempt to show the current field near the middle of the screen. This means that during data entry, the cursor will appear to remain relatively stationary near the middle of the screen, and the form will scroll after each field is entered.

 

 

There are two ways to run the Data Manager. If the data file already exists, and you want to add, edit, or delete records, select File, Open, Data File. If a data file does yet exist, you can select Data, Run Data Manager.

 

Keyboard And Mouse Functions

The following are the basic keyboard functions for record and field selections:

 

Enter

Advance to the next field using skip pattern if present

Tab

Advance to the next field using skip pattern if present

Shift Tab

Move to the previous field. Does not follow skip patterns.

Down Arrow

Advance to the next field using skip pattern if present

Up Arrow

Move to the previous field. Follows skip patterns that were used.

Page Up

Move to previous record.

Page Down

Advance to next record.

 

Create A New Data File

To create a new data file, first run the Data Manager. Then select File, Open, and type a new file name. In nearly all cases, the data file name will be the same as the codebook and form names. The program will first ask for the name of the form you want to use as your data entry template. Then it will ask for the name of the data file. The form will load and you will be able to begin entering data.

 

Edit Or Add To An Existing Data File

To edit or add records to an existing data file, first run the Data Manager. Then select File, Open and select the data file. If there is a form with the same name (most situations), it will be loaded and you will be able to edit or enter data. If there is not a form with the same name, you will be asked to enter the name of the form.

 

Select A Different Data File

It is not necessary to close the current data file before choosing to edit a different data file. To change data files select File, Open and select the data file. The current data file will be closed automatically before the program opens the new file.

 

Change Fields

The current field is the one you are ready to enter data into. It will be highlighted on the form using the color scheme developed during the design of the form (although the colors can be changed with the Data Manager program).

During normal data entry, the current field will change automatically following skip patterns if necessary. The user, however, is free to manually change to any field at any time. There are many ways to change fields.

Clicking the mouse on any field will make it the current field. Clicking the mouse on the Previous Field Button or the Next Field Button will change to the previous or next field.  You can also type a field number into the Current Field window and press enter.

If the Variable List window is displayed, clicking on a variable will make that variable the current field. If the Variable Detail window is displayed, selecting a new variable will make it the current field. The Variable List and Variable Detail windows can be displayed by selecting View.

Finally, the following keys can also be used to manually change fields.

 

Enter

Advance to the next field using skip pattern if present

Tab

Advance to the next field using skip pattern if present

Shift Tab

Move to the previous field. Does not follow skip patterns that were used.

Down Arrow

Advance to the next field using skip pattern if present

Up Arrow

Move to the previous field. Follows skip patterns that were used

.

Change Records

The Automatic Record Advance option controls whether the current record will be automatically incremented when data entry person reaches the last field in the current record.

If the Automatic Record Advance option is set, the program will automatically advance to the next record when the last field of the current record has been entered. This way, it is possible to enter a large number of records without clicking on the New Record Burton for each record. To change the Automatic Record Advance option, select Options, Data Input Settings.

There are several ways to manually change records. Clicking on the Previous Record Button or the Next Record Button will change to the previous or next record.  You can also type a record number into the Current Record window and press enter.  Finally, the following keys can also be used to manually change records.

 

Page Up

Move to previous record.

Page Down

Advance to next record

.

Enter A New Data Record

There are two ways to enter a new data record. The first is to click on the New Record Button, and the second is to select Edit, Begin New Record. The current record number window will be updated to show the record number for the new record. If you do not enter any data for the new record, it will not be saved. If any data is entered, the new record will be added to the end of the data file. It is not possible to insert a new record into the middle of and existing data file.

 

View Data For A Specified Record Number

There are two ways to view the data for a record with a known record number. The first is to type the desired record number into the current record number window and press enter (or click anywhere on the form). The second is to select Edit, Go To Record (or use the Control G shortcut).

 When finished, the selected record will be displayed, and the focus will remain on the currently selected field. The current record number window will be updated to show the record number for the selected record.

 

Find Records That Contain Specified Data

StatPac makes it easy to find data records that contain specified data.  To begin a search, click the Find Button, or select Edit, Search Data File (or use the Control F shortcut). The Find dialog window will be displayed.

After a search has been started and a match has been found, you can continue the search by selecting Edit, Continue Search (or use the [F3] shortcut key). The Find dialog window does not have to be displayed to continue a previous search, although if it is displayed, you can also click on Find Next to begin the search. Note that the search often happens so quickly that it seems instantaneous. The user can watch the current record number to confirm the record number that they are viewing following a search.

There are four components in the Find dialog window.

 

Field To Search

Select the variable (i.e., field) you want to search. The default will be the current variable.

Search For

This is the text or value you want to search for. If you want to search for missing data, leave this field blank.

Search Direction

Select All, Forward, or Backwards.

When the Search Direction is set to All, the search will begin with the record following the current record (e.g., if record 5 is displayed on the screen, the search will start with record 6).  If no match is found by the end of the file, the search will continue with record 1 and continue until all records have been examined.  If no match is found, StatPac will report it, and the current record will continue to be displayed. When the Search Direction is set to Forward or Backward, the search will go only to the end or beginning of the file (respectively).

Search Method

Select Exact Match, Partial Match or Soundex. 

Upper and lower case differences will be ignored for all searches regardless of the method used. If you search for JOHN JONES, John Jones will be found.

If you set the Search Method to an Exact Match, then the data must exactly match the search string (with the exception of case differences). If you search for Jones, StatPac will not find a record that contains John Jones in the search field

If you set the Search Method to a Partial Match, then the search will find records that contain the search string regardless of other text in the field. If you search for Jones, StatPac will find records that contain John Jones.

A Soundex search is one that uses the sound of the word instead of its exact spelling.  This makes it possible to find text even when there are spelling or data entry errors.  If you set the Search Method to a Soundex Search, then the search will find records that contain the sound of the search string regardless of other text in the field. If you search for Jonathan, StatPac will find records that contain John Jonethon, Fred Johnathon, Mary Ann Jonathon, etc.  

 

Duplicate A Field From The Previous Record

It is sometimes desirable to be able to repeat data from the previous record. For example, assume one of the variables in your study is the full city name. During data entry you would type the city name for the first record. When entering data for the city field in the second (and subsequent) records, you could duplicate the response from the previous record. The duplicate field function is disabled during double entry verification.

There are two ways to duplicate the data from the previous record. The first is to click on the DUP Button, and the second is to select Edit, Duplicate Field From Previous Record (or use the [F5] shortcut key). The duplicate function will copy the contents of the previous record to the current record for the current field.

Delete A Record

Deleting a record is a fairly common procedure because duplicate records are often discovered in a data file.  There are two ways to delete a record. The first is to click on the DEL Button and the second is to select Edit, Delete Current Record.

StatPac will not actually delete the record at this time. Instead, the contents of all variables in the record are set to blanks (missing). In this way, the record is marked for deletion rather than actually being deleted. The rationale being that deleting a record would cause all subsequent records to move down in the data file, in effect changing their record numbers.  Since editing is often done by record number, it is important that the record numbers do not change during an editing session.

Records marked for deletion cannot automatically be undeleted.  When you mark a record for deletion, it is actually stored as blanks in the data file, so there is no way to recover the information. You can, however, re-enter the data for that record.  If you enter any data in a record marked for deletion, it will not be deleted since it now contains data.

When you exit the Data Manager, you will have the opportunity to compact the file (i.e., eliminate the deleted records).  This will change the record numbers for future editing sessions.  If you want to preserve the record numbers for the next editing session, don't compact the file.

You can also manually compact the data file at any time by selecting Options, Compact Data File. You will be asked to confirm your selection because the procedure will change the record numbers. The delete record function is disabled during double entry verification.

If you have deleted records, it is important to compact the data file before performing any statistical analysis.  Otherwise, the deleted records would be counted as missing data in the analysis.

 

Data Input Settings

Most data entry control parameters are specified in the Study Design program. However, a few parameters can be altered by the data entry person. Select Options, Data Input Settings to change the settings.

 

The Automatic Record Advance option controls whether the current record will be automatically incremented when data entry person reaches the last field in the current record.

If the Automatic Record Advance option is set, the program will automatically advance to the next record when the last field of the current record has been entered. This way, it is possible to enter a large number of records without clicking on the New Record Burton for each record.

The Disable Skips During Editing option controls whether skip codes should be active when you are editing an existing record. When this option is set, skip codes will work when you are entering a new record and will not work when editing an existing record. If you are entering a new data record, and temporarily return to a previous record, and then back to the new record you were working on, then you will no longer be entering a “new” data record. In other words, a record becomes permanent as soon as you change records (even if only some of the information was entered for that record). Skip codes will be disabled when you return to the “new” record that you were entering unless the Disable Skips During Editing is unchecked.

The final Data Input Settings let you change the colors for the fields.

 

Compact Data File

When you delete a record with the Data Manager,  StatPac makes it a blank record without actually deleting the physical record from the data file. If you have deleted records, it is important to compact the file by deleting the blank records. Otherwise, the deleted records would be counted as missing data in the analysis.  To compress a file, select Options, Compact Data File. See Deleting A Record. The compact data file function is disabled during double entry verification.

 

Double Entry Verification

StatPac performs validity and range checking on all data entered. However, some people prefer to use a Double Entry Verification method to further reduce data entry error. Using this method, all the data is first entered into a data file. Then the data is entered again and compared against the first data during the second data entry process. Discrepancies are brought to the attention of the data entry person and they are resolved in real time during data entry..

To begin Double Entry Verification open the data file to be verified and select Options, Double Entry Verification. All the existing data will be "hidden" from the user, and it will appear that you are ready to begin entering data beginning with the first record. As each field is entered it is compared with the existing data. Skip patterns will be followed as if this were the same as entering a new data record. Discrepancies will be highlighted and you will be able to specify whether to use the new data or original data. Once a field has been verified, it's data will no longer be hidden.

Obviously, Double Entry Verification works only if surveys are entered in exactly the same order as the original data entry. When operating in the Double Entry Verification mode, each time a new record is displayed, the field data will appear blank even if that record was already verified. Thus, if the data entry person stops midway through the verification process, it is important they note the record number they were working on when they stopped, so they can begin at that record when they return.

 

Print A Data Record

To print a data record select File, Print. The current record will be printed using the form as a template.

 

Variable List & Detail Windows

The Variable List window allows the user to view the variable names and variable numbers while entering data. Clicking on a variable in the Variable List window will make that variable the current variable. Double clicking on a variable in the Variable List window will activate the Variable Detail window.

The Variable Detail window give complete information on the current variable. It can be turned on or off by selecting View, Variable Detail. Double clicking on a field will also activate the Variable Detail window.

The Variable Detail window can be dragged around the screen by clicking and holding the left mouse button on any gray area in the Variable Detail window.

 

Data File Format

StatPac stores its data files in sequential ASCII fixed format with a carriage return and line feed at the end of each record. This is sometimes referred to as a flat ASCII file. The data file also contains an end of file mark (Ctrl Z or ASCII 26) at the end  of the file.  This is the most universally accepted data file format, and many data base managers refer to it as SDF format

When using data created by another program, you can determine if it is an ASCII file by loading into a text editor. If the data does not appear as garbage, it's probably ASCII.  If all records appear to contain the same number of characters, it's probably fixed format.  Data in any other format must be imported into StatPac.

A "record" or "case" in StatPac is defined as a string of characters terminated with a carriage return and line feed.  Fixed format means that all records are exactly the same length (contain the same number of characters) as all other records.

Two different fixed format data files are shown as follows:

 

Single variable file

Multiple variable file

Record 1

14

14A3184172

Record 2

29

29C2018061

Record 3

06

06B9012103

and so on ....

Notice that a data file is just a series of numbers (or letters).  All the records are always the same length.  In this example, the single variable file uses two columns per record and the multiple variable file uses ten columns per record (with an unknown number of variables).  The end of each data record contains an invisible carriage return and line feed, so each record actually contains two more characters per record (one for the carriage return and one for the line feed).

If you already have a data file stored in sequential ASCII format, you can use it with StatPac by giving it a .dat extension.  You only need to set up a codebook to match the format of the data file.  No other changes are necessary.

Most data downloaded from a mainframe, read-in from a scanner, or received from a data entry company will be in sequential ASCII format.  To use this data with StatPac, perform the following three steps:

1. Set up a study design with StatPac that exactly matches the format of the data file.  The format of the study design must exactly match the format of the data you will be using.  If the data file contains unused columns, dummy variables should be created in StatPac to "pass-over" the blank portions of the data record.

2. Copy the data file to your work subdirectory. Then rename it to the same name as the codebook except with a .dat extension.

If you need to use a data file that is not stored in sequential ASCII  format, you must import it into StatPac. The Analysis program has a utility to import most foreign data files into StatPac's format.  This makes it easy to exchange data with other software packages, including most data base managers and spreadsheets.